No single method has proven effective in differentiating between English learner students who have difficulty acquiring language skills and those who have learning disabilities. As a result, schools, districts, and states struggle with this issue. Misidentified students can end up in classrooms or programs mismatched to their needs, which can hamper their educational achievement. This resource brief describes key elements of research-based processes that can help identify and suggest appropriate services for English learner student populations. It also highlights five comprehensive state manuals aimed to assist educators in identifying and supporting English learner students who may have learning disabilities.